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上醫醫國_篇七[其他]信057_Dissent is not disloyalty[異議並非不忠]—論大學之言論自由
by 陳怡蓁, 2012-09-07 18:08, Views(818)

篇七【其他】

 

給醫學生的信57

Dissent is not disloyalty異議並非不忠

論大學之言論自由

【前言】

    孟子云,「予豈好辯哉!予不得已也!」,可見東方人自古忌諱辯論。然而,在大學殿堂裡,師長若不能以身作則,提倡critical discussion的實踐,不能讓學生具有dissent is not disloyalty的心態,再多的投資也是枉然。

 

 

    We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. When the loyal opposition dies, I think the soul ofuniversitydies with it.

~~ modified from Edward R. Murrow

﹝「我們不可將不同意與不忠相混淆。當忠誠的反對死去,我認為『大學』的精神也隨之逝去。」~~修改自Edward R. Murrow

                                                     

    言論自由(Freedom of Speech)是現代文明社會進步的原動力,尤其在做為知識最高殿堂的大學裡,更是大學精神的核心;所謂真理愈辯愈明,惟有透過批判性討論(critical discussion),大學的學術卓越才有實踐的可能。

    台灣大學誓言追求卓越,但在種種軟硬體的充實之外,更重要的是心態的改變;也就是要重新建立批判性討論(critical discussion)的精神與實踐。         

    當師長們抱怨學生們在討論時鴉雀無聲之際,不妨想想院務會議裡,資深教授、主管濟濟一堂,各個吃便當、打瞌睡、批公文,卻少有人提案與參與實質討論,而私下則對院務滿肚子苦水。問他們為何有「異」見,卻不在院務會議提案討論,答案往往是「公開批評,不好意思,而且可能得罪人,更何況講了也沒用」;大家都心知肚明─「重要的事情,向來不在院務會議討論」,頂多以報告事項交代一下,大部份的時間則花在討論「遣辭用字」;即便有人不死心,提案討論,往往也在高層的一句「我們先研究、研究」中,消弭於無形。

    就這樣,大學批判性討論的精神江河日下,更因為無法集眾人之智,致使寶貴資源不能做有效的運用,造成「大學卓越」流為「個人卓越」。

  西諺有言:“Dissent is not disloyalty﹝異議並非不忠﹞”,在台大人的心中,卻似乎是“dissent is disloyalty”。其實,東方人的傳統心態就是如此;吉本芭芭娜與春上春樹在對談東方人與西方人對辯論(argument)的態度時,就說東方人﹝包括日本人﹞與人正面辯論,幾乎就是公開與對方為敵,因東方人往往不若西方人比較能把對事與對人分開;因此,她結論是─在日本,還是避免公開地與人辯論,才是上策。

  而孟子則云,「予豈好辯哉!予不得已也!」,可見東方人自古即忌諱辯論。然而,在大學殿堂裡,假若師長不能以身作則,提倡的批判性討論實踐,不能讓學生具有dissent is not disloyalty的心態,則再多的投資也是枉然。

  一個重要的關鍵是,身為主管或居上位者,手握資源分配、教師升等及賦予職位的權力,更應在日常行事之際,鼓勵“debate”、“critical discussion”,方能避免官大學問大的傲慢與偏見,而不致於像某些學院或附屬機構成為一言堂!在風行草偃之下,師生自然見賢思齊,而學術卓越的追求也自將水到渠成。

 

  以下特將有關於dissent is not disloyalty的佳句列出,以供參考與省思─

Archibald Macleish:

    The dissenter is every human being at those moments of his life when he resigns momentarily from the herd and thinks for himself.

Barbara Ehrenreich:

    No matter that patriotism is too often the refuge of scoundrels. Dissent, rebellion, and all-around hell-raising remain the true duty of patriots.

David Ogilvy:

    Talent ... is most likely to be found among non-conformists, dissenters, and rebels.

Edward R. Murrow:

    We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. When the loyal opposition dies, I think the soul of America dies with it.

Edward R. Murrow:

    No one can terrorize a whole nation, unless we are all his accomplices. (about Senator Joseph McCarthy's accusations about Communism in the American government)

Eleanor Holmes Norton:

    The only way to make sure people you agree with can speak is to support the rights of people you don't agree with.

Eric Hoffer:

    The beginning of thought is in disagreement -- not only with others but also with ourselves.

Florynce Kennedy:

    You've got to rattle your cage door. You've got to let them know that you're in there, and that you want out. Make noise. Cause trouble. You may not win right away, but you'll sure have a lot more fun.

George Orwell:

    In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act.

Harry S Truman:

    Once a government is committed to the principle of silencing the voice of opposition, it has

only one way to go, and that is down the path of increasingly repressive measures, until it becomes a source of terror to all its citizens and creates a country where everyone lives in fear.

J. William Fulbright:

    In a democracy, dissent is an act of faith.

John F. Kennedy:

Without debate, without criticism, no administration and no country can succeed -- and no republic can survive.

Mohandas K. Gandhi:

    Non-cooperation is a measure of discipline and sacrifice, and it demands respect for the opposite views.

Vaclav Havel:

    You do not become a "dissident" just because you decide one day to take up this most unusual career. You are thrown into it by your personal sense of responsibility, combined with a complex set of external circumstances. You are cast out of the existing structures and placed in a position of conflict with them. It begins as an attempt to do your work well, and ends with being branded an enemy of society.

William O. Douglas:

    Restriction of free thought and free speech is the most dangerous of all subversions. It is the

one un-American act that could most easily defeat us.